São Paulo – Technical note from the Special Secretariat for Social Security and Labor of the Ministry of Economy, released on Thursday (17), points out that the covid-19 can be considered an occupational disease, but only after confirmation by the federal medical expert. According to the folder, the procedure is necessary to certify that the contamination did occur due to the work.
The document claims that endemic diseases can only be considered as work-related diseases when proven to be “the result of exposure or direct contact determined by the nature of the work”. The definition was inserted to detail the relationship between covid-19 and the granting of social security benefits. According to information from the Twitter, the note adds that the transmission of the new coronavirus occurs in the country on a community basis. “Which makes it extremely difficult to define whether a worker has had contact with the virus at home, on public transport, at the workplace or in another place he has visited,” says an excerpt from the document.
The Labor judge and president of the Association of Judges for Democracy (AJD), Valdete Souto Severo, warns that the proof that there was contamination in a certain environment “is something very difficult to be done”, due to the form of infection. The new coronavirus can be transmitted either by direct contact with an infected person or by proximity, by shaking hands, touching contaminated surfaces, coughing, sneezing, droplets of saliva and phlegm.
Work environment is a risk factor
“Whoever during the pandemic is exposing his body in contact with other people is at risk of acquiring a disease that contracts through the airways. That is why it has to be assumed that the work environment becomes a constant risk factor for workers ”, explains, in an interview with Glauco Faria, in Current Brazil Newspaper. “If the person remains working during the pandemic, the presumption has to be that covid-19 was triggered or facilitated by the fact that he travels on public transport to go to work and, during work, to have contact with other human beings who may be infected, ”he adds.
An article recently published by the Association of Experts on Labor Justice (Apejust) and reproduced by the Covid-19 Observatory concluded that “there is an increasingly clear lack of zero risk. Despite all efforts to comply with the health protocols for the effective use of masks and the provision of collective protection. Thus, under these conditions, the risk of contagion is always present ”in the work environment, wrote the labor judicial experts Cesar Bimbi, Evandro Krebs and Giovanni Forneck.
The attempt to avoid the classification of covid-19 as an occupational disease had already been put in place by the Bolsonaro government in March of this year, when a provisional measure was issued stating that the disease would only be considered in this way “upon proof of the casual connection”. The MP was suspended by the Federal Supreme Court (STF), recalls the president of AJD, “precisely because of the absurdity of avoiding this characterization”.
“What is proposed is the recognition of covid-19 based on the same reasoning that is done for those activities that are listed in the list of the Ministry of Health’s Epidemiological Nexus. The document says that certain activities cause certain diseases, so there is no need prove. The fact of working in this type of activity leads to the conclusion, or generates the presumption, that that disease is related to work ”, says Valdete.
“Any activity that continues during the pandemic must have this framework as an unhealthy activity. Because you are putting a person at a very high risk of contact with a disease that we do not even know what it can cause for some people. While some face it calmly, others are taken to death very quickly ”, he points out.
Existing biological risk
According to the Labor judge, there is already jurisprudence for workers as to covid-19 being understood as a work-related illness. Valdete also demands recognition of the damage to workers’ mental health in the midst of the pandemic, as well as the application of Article 118 of the Social Security Benefits Law. The legislation guarantees the maintenance of employment for at least one year, from the date of return, to the insured person who suffered an accident at work. In this case, it would be applied to people who were hospitalized for more than a month due to covid-19.
The AJD president also stresses the importance of creating a measure that prohibits dismissal during the pandemic. “Several provisional measures were issued by the Brazilian government, but he was never concerned with securing jobs. And this is important because during the pandemic, with the reduction of production and consumption, it is evident that, in a country of structural unemployment like ours, those who lose their jobs will not find another. And employment is a condition for us to survive in a capitalist country ”, he guarantees.
In a technical note, issued earlier this month, the Public Ministry of Labor (MPT) pointed out that covid-19 “is a biological risk existing in the workplace, and, despite being pandemic, does not exclude the employer’s responsibility to identify the possible transmitters of the disease in the workplace and the appropriate measures for active search, screening and isolation of cases, with the immediate removal of the contact persons ”.
Check out the interview of Rádio Brasil Atual
Writing: Clara Assunção. Edition: Glauco Faria
Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society
São Paulo – Society undergoes several changes, year after year, be it culturally, in its forms of organization, and even in new working methods. These transformations influence other segments, including Hip-Hop, rap and their MC battles. In view of this, social scientist Felipe Oliveira Campos, known as Felipe Choco, launched the book Rap, Culture and Politics: Battle of the Matrix and the Aesthetics of Entrepreneurial Overcoming, which addresses the digital and marketing influence within this culture.
A member of the Center for Studies and Research of Afro-America (Nepafro), Choco analyzes contemporary society using the Battle of the Matrix held in São Bernardo do Campo as a pillar since 2013, and considered a reference in the duel between MCs. The resistance of the event, the target of police repression and municipal administration, was the starting point for the author.
“When I face the Battle of the Matrix, it poses a number of questions that can be deepened, being able to understand it beyond the context of battles, as public spaces in cities”, he explains. “When the Battle of the Matrix emerged, I was part of the Hip-Hop Forum of São Bernardo do Campo, and mediated conflicts with the Government. Therefore, I realized that the conflicts that the battle created when occupying the public space, raised questions of general interest. So I used the Battle of the Matrix as a way to understand contemporary Brazil, ”added Choco.
In 2018, RBA reported the repression suffered by the battle of ABC Paulista. At the time, the management of the mayor of São Bernardo do Campo, Orlando Morando (PSDB), tried to “boycott” the traditional rap event in the city, by charging a fee for using the Praça da Matrix, in the city center. At various times, rapper Emicida went to the site to support young people.
While society sees new forms of organization, rap also adapts to these changes. The writer compares the professionalization of artists and battles to the industrialization of the city of São Bernardo do Campo and Posse Hausa, a black organization founded in the 1990s, focused on the Hip-Hop movement, whose majority of the members were workers in the ABC industry Paulista.
With the 2017 labor reform, by then President Michel Temer (MDB-SP), Felipe Choco explains that the social dynamics have also changed within the Hip-Hop culture. “Today, the organizers of the Battle of the Matrix are part of the service sector, without stability and without social protection. Therefore, the financial solution, among the organizers, was the professionalization of the event. This applies to the whole culture. ”
The main example used by the author of these social and economic transformations in rap is Emicida’s career. Coming from the Battle of Santa Cruz, disputed south of São Paulo, the rapper emerged using the main method of rhyming duels: the punchlines – in Portuguese, punch lines, used to impress the listener.
After the success, the rapper created his own musical label: Laboratório Fantasma. “Emicida created a horizon to organize its own career, without having to go through the distributors’ screen. In other words, it is the democratization of music production, distribution and consumption ”, said Choco, who recalls that the book’s presentation is signed by the MC.
Aesthetics of entrepreneurial overcoming
Based on the phenomenon achieved by Emicida, the social scientist points to the creation of a new aesthetic within rap: that of entrepreneurial overcoming. According to him, this aspect allows creative freedom and financial autonomy, creating a style of business organization.
“This overcoming does not mean denying the culture’s past, but advancing in the market sense, creating a mark around the artist”, he explained. The author quotes a statement by Mano Brown, a member of Racionais, where the rapper points out that the phonographic market is no longer just the commercialization of music, but also the image and positioning of MCs.
This aesthetic creates a new notion of work and organization, according to the author. “If we make a parallel with the industrial market, in the 1990s, work was in opposition to capital, where the organization of the workforce sought its valorization. Now, in the face of informality and the imposition that ‘each one is an entrepreneur of their own’, artists become their own business capital ”, he reiterates.
However, this entrepreneurial resilience does not only involve rappers and new independent labels, but also affects the battles of MCs, including the Matrix. With the rise of streaming platforms such as YouTube, duels have become more digital, have reached new audiences and created a new market.
“The Battle of the Matrix is a product of that condition that battles have become. Before the pandemic, every Tuesday, she mobilized 1,000 people in the square. Battles play a fundamental role in mutations and reinventions of culture, as was the case with punchline, taking a new breath in how to make and organize rap. These changes that occur in rap did not come out of nowhere, they are the result of social transformations ”, concludes Felipe.
Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society
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