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Women are hardest hit by the labor market crisis

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São Paulo – Women are hardest hit by the crisis in the job market during the new coronavirus pandemic. The participation of women in the labor market in the country fell to the lowest in 30 years. In the second quarter of this year, according to IBGE data, women represented 46.3% of the workforce. The index considers women who work and seek employment. It is the lowest number since 1990, when the rate was 44.2%. According to the institute, the loss in participation shows that women are the most affected by the economic crisis aggravated by the covid-19.

Since 1991, the index has not dropped below 50%. What for specialists consulted by reporter Jô Miyagui, from Your Newspaper, gives TVT, it is beyond the circumstances caused by the pandemic, by showing “the face of a country that historically has high unemployment rates among women. IBGE 2019 data, cut by gender and race, already indicated that women, especially black women, made up 13.9% of the unemployment rate, above the national average of 11.8%.

Rate should increase

And with the reduction of emergency aid from R $ 600 to R $ 300 and the forecast for the closure of the benefit, scheduled until December, unemployment is expected to increase even more because people will be looking for work. “The unemployment rate in Brazil starts to pressure the market now in September”, observes the economist Marilane Teixeira. “People who were out of work, who lost their jobs during the pandemic, take to the streets to find work. And then the unemployment rate starts to reflect in this new condition ”.

This is the case of lawyer Michele Morais who lost her job in the office where she worked. Having been unemployed for six months, she is looking for a new job, but she also has difficulties finding her because her three-year-old son is out of school.

“Today my period is full-time for him, because I have no one to leave him with. I’m even in the job market, looking for something to do, but it’s still difficult. Last week I went to a job interview and the first question I was asked was ‘do you have anyone to leave your child with?’. As I really need it, I said that in this situation, if it is to work in person, I would leave it to my mother, because the schools are closed. And of course I haven’t had a return yet, ”laments Michele.

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Copywriting: Clara Assunção – Edition: Helder Lima

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Economy

more unemployment and more informality

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São Paulo – Government, businessmen and some parliamentarians were in tune with the defense of the bill that, if approved, would lead to the creation of Law 13,467 in 2017. The so-called labor reform, after all, would lead to the creation of millions of jobs. This would happen to the extent that it would end the rigidity of the legislation, which they treated as being “plastered”, facilitating hiring and giving the much-needed “modernization” to the Brazilian labor market.

Because the law completed three years on November 11 “and nobody celebrated, not even timidly”, recalls analyst Marcos Verlaine, from the Inter-Union Department of Parliamentary Advisory (Diap). “Among the expectations generated by the authors, the government of that time, the businessmen, who sponsored, defended and acted strongly in Congress to approve it, the media and reality, remained the harsh reality”, he says, in an article. He defines the measure passed by Congress as a “capital Trojan horse” to implode labor rights.

Collective bargaining?

The insistent defense of the “negotiated over the legislature”, a recurring expression at the time, was not to privilege negotiation, notes the analyst. “It was to remove rights, since the negotiations – both CCT (ccollective labor agreements) and ACT (collective labor agreements) – they never prevented, on the contrary, that the conventions surpass the CLT, nor that the agreements surpass the conventions. ”

The “millions” of jobs did not come, even before the pandemic. The growth in occupation was basically due to informal work. In 2016, the year before the “reform”, the country had 10.1 million unpaid employees in the private sector and 22.4 million self-employed workers. Last year, they were 11.6 million and 24.2 million, respectively (check table). The data are from the National Household Sample Survey (Pnad) Continua, from IBGE.

Modernization or precariousness?

Employment with a wallet fell. And the Gini index at work, which measures inequality, which until 2015 fell, rose again the following year and has not stopped.

The “reform” introduced hiring modalities, such as intermittent work. They were also presented as items of the necessary “modernization”, but union members and researchers identify them as additional signs of precariousness in the market. Although still small, the participation of the intermittent modality has been growing.

This week, the Federal Supreme Court (STF) began to judge direct actions of unconstitutionality against intermittent work. In his vote, the rapporteur, Minister Edson Fachin, considered the item unconstitutional and causing damage to workers’ health. But his colleagues Kassio Nunes Marques and Alexandre Moraes were in favor of the sport. The trial was interrupted by a request for view from Minister Rosa Weber.

If it is impossible to revoke the law in its entirety, Verlaine suggests specific changes, citing intermittent hiring. “It is necessary to negotiate with all political and social actors in order to bring about changes in this scorched earth scenario” he argues.

read more: ‘Labor Reform’: Stories of a False Promise and Changes in ‘Endless Destruction’

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