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Unlike Brazil, military leaders moved away from Trump



São Paulo – There are countless similarities that unite Jair Bolsonaro and the President of the United States, Donald Trump, such as the attack on democratic institutions and denialism in the midst of the pandemic. As well as the values ​​that move their respective groups of supporters. Thus, Trump’s defeat in the elections, which may still culminate in his definitive departure after the invasion of the Capitol, should weaken Bolsonaro and bolsonarism. However, there are important fundamental differences in the Brazilian case. “There is a difference that needs to be emphasized: the fact that military leaders in the United States have publicly distanced themselves from Trump. I still want to see that in Brazil, ”said Giorgio Romano, professor of International Relations at the Federal University of ABC (UFABC). The professor spoke on Thursday morning (14), in an interview with Current Brazil Newspaper.

The Joint Chiefs of Staff, jointly with the United States Armed Forces, released a note on Tuesday (12). They say last week’s violent unrest was an attack on the United States’ constitutional process. The acts culminated in the invasion of the Capitol by Trump supporters.

“In Brazil, we have some signs, some isolated voices. But there is no such clarity between the military summit that this is a political moment that is destroying the country and life. The minimum that is expected of the military is the defense of life ”, said Romano.

He pointed out that, in addition to the presence of thousands of military personnel in the government, Bolsonaro still has support among members of the military police. This week, even, two proposals defended by the government came out that weaken the governors’ control over the security forces and expand administrative, financial and even functional autonomy in the case of the military police.

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Despite this essential difference, according to the expert, the opening of an impeachment process against Bolsonaro will still depend on the eventual drop in popularity of the government, due to the end of emergency aid and the general deterioration of the economy.

Romano points out that the ultraliberal policies of the Bolsonaro government are beginning to bring wear and tear to the government. This was the case, for example, of the 5,000 layoffs announced by Banco do Brasil. As in the case of the closing of Ford’s factories in the country. This liberal discourse is being “left out” in developed countries, which are betting on the role of the State and public investments for the resumption of the post-pandemic. But in Brazil, according to him, there is no “plan B”.

Watch the interview

Writing: Tiago Pereira

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Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society




São Paulo – Society undergoes several changes, year after year, be it culturally, in its forms of organization, and even in new working methods. These transformations influence other segments, including Hip-Hop, rap and their MC battles. In view of this, social scientist Felipe Oliveira Campos, known as Felipe Choco, launched the book Rap, Culture and Politics: Battle of the Matrix and the Aesthetics of Entrepreneurial Overcoming, which addresses the digital and marketing influence within this culture.

A member of the Center for Studies and Research of Afro-America (Nepafro), Choco analyzes contemporary society using the Battle of the Matrix held in São Bernardo do Campo as a pillar since 2013, and considered a reference in the duel between MCs. The resistance of the event, the target of police repression and municipal administration, was the starting point for the author.

“When I face the Battle of the Matrix, it poses a number of questions that can be deepened, being able to understand it beyond the context of battles, as public spaces in cities”, he explains. “When the Battle of the Matrix emerged, I was part of the Hip-Hop Forum of São Bernardo do Campo, and mediated conflicts with the Government. Therefore, I realized that the conflicts that the battle created when occupying the public space, raised questions of general interest. So I used the Battle of the Matrix as a way to understand contemporary Brazil, ”added Choco.

In 2018, RBA reported the repression suffered by the battle of ABC Paulista. At the time, the management of the mayor of São Bernardo do Campo, Orlando Morando (PSDB), tried to “boycott” the traditional rap event in the city, by charging a fee for using the Praça da Matrix, in the city center. At various times, rapper Emicida went to the site to support young people.

Social transformations

While society sees new forms of organization, rap also adapts to these changes. The writer compares the professionalization of artists and battles to the industrialization of the city of São Bernardo do Campo and Posse Hausa, a black organization founded in the 1990s, focused on the Hip-Hop movement, whose majority of the members were workers in the ABC industry Paulista.

With the 2017 labor reform, by then President Michel Temer (MDB-SP), Felipe Choco explains that the social dynamics have also changed within the Hip-Hop culture. “Today, the organizers of the Battle of the Matrix are part of the service sector, without stability and without social protection. Therefore, the financial solution, among the organizers, was the professionalization of the event. This applies to the whole culture. ”

The main example used by the author of these social and economic transformations in rap is Emicida’s career. Coming from the Battle of Santa Cruz, disputed south of São Paulo, the rapper emerged using the main method of rhyming duels: the punchlines – in Portuguese, punch lines, used to impress the listener.

After the success, the rapper created his own musical label: Laboratório Fantasma. “Emicida created a horizon to organize its own career, without having to go through the distributors’ screen. In other words, it is the democratization of music production, distribution and consumption ”, said Choco, who recalls that the book’s presentation is signed by the MC.

Aesthetics of entrepreneurial overcoming

Based on the phenomenon achieved by Emicida, the social scientist points to the creation of a new aesthetic within rap: that of entrepreneurial overcoming. According to him, this aspect allows creative freedom and financial autonomy, creating a style of business organization.

“This overcoming does not mean denying the culture’s past, but advancing in the market sense, creating a mark around the artist”, he explained. The author quotes a statement by Mano Brown, a member of Racionais, where the rapper points out that the phonographic market is no longer just the commercialization of music, but also the image and positioning of MCs.

This aesthetic creates a new notion of work and organization, according to the author. “If we make a parallel with the industrial market, in the 1990s, work was in opposition to capital, where the organization of the workforce sought its valorization. Now, in the face of informality and the imposition that ‘each one is an entrepreneur of their own’, artists become their own business capital ”, he reiterates.

However, this entrepreneurial resilience does not only involve rappers and new independent labels, but also affects the battles of MCs, including the Matrix. With the rise of streaming platforms such as YouTube, duels have become more digital, have reached new audiences and created a new market.

“The Battle of the Matrix is ​​a product of that condition that battles have become. Before the pandemic, every Tuesday, she mobilized 1,000 people in the square. Battles play a fundamental role in mutations and reinventions of culture, as was the case with punchline, taking a new breath in how to make and organize rap. These changes that occur in rap did not come out of nowhere, they are the result of social transformations ”, concludes Felipe.

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