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Unicef ​​presses for schools to reopen, but there is no structure

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São Paulo – In an open letter earlier this year, the United Nations Children’s Fund (Unicef) asked mayors and mayors to prioritize the reopening of schools in Brazil, even with the covid-19 pandemic not yet controlled. According to the representative of the international agency in the country, Florence Bauer, who signs the document, “the long closing time of most schools and social isolation have had a profound impact on learning, mental health and the protection of children and adolescents” .

The passage was highlighted in the column of the international correspondent in Twitter, Jamil Chad. The organization argues that the return to face-to-face classes must be adapted to the local situation of the cities. This may include hybrid education measures, with special and distance education, and student rotation.

According to Unicef, the goal is to prevent students from abandoning education permanently. “This will further deepen inequalities and impact an entire generation,” he warns in the letter. The organization also points out that the reopening of schools represents an opportunity to protect children and adolescents from domestic violence – which increased during the pandemic. As well as ensuring food security, with access to school lunches.

Critical moment of the pandemic

The lawyer specializing in the human rights of children and youth, former adviser to the National Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (Conanda), Ariel de Castro Alves, points out that this entire Brazilian context must in fact be assessed. In an interview with Maria Teresa Cruz, Current Brazil Newspaper, Ariel recalls that distance learning, as an alternative to face-to-face classes, “was extremely precarious, because the governments also did not provide the necessary means for both teachers and students”.

But he ponders the concern of those in charge and education professionals that students may be infected in schools and transmit the virus to older family members.

Unicef’s call for reopening comes at a time when the pandemic has intensified. Data from the National Council of Health Secretaries (Conass), updated on Sunday (10), show that 469 people died in the last 24 hours. Another 29,792 cases of covid-19 have also been confirmed. In all, 203,100 lives have been lost and more than eight million infected in the country since the pandemic began in March.

Parental objection

In the midst of this critical stage, at least 15 states, however, are already expected to resume face-to-face classes between January and March this year, according to a report by Twitter. Ariel de Castro Alves believes that the context, however, allows fathers, mothers and guardians to not respond for intellectual abandonment, if they refuse to take their children to face-to-face classes. “Because the crime is to leave without just cause to provide education, to send children to school. But in this case, we have a just cause, we have a pandemic that has already killed 203 thousand more in Brazil ”, he explains.

“We have a lack of structure in schools and classes are usually full. Crowds in the intervals, at the entrance and at the exit, and soaps are even lacking in water in many schools. There are no minimum hygiene materials. And of course, we will not have alcohol gels and masks at the disposal of the students, so that they change every three hours. All of these issues need to be taken into account at a time like this, ”he warns.

Reopening only after vaccination

For the lawyer, Unicef ​​”should use all its power of pressure, influence and importance” to “charge the country, state governments and city halls for speeding up the vaccination process”. Ariel points out that in the “hierarchy of fundamental rights, life and health are even above the right to education. Especially because without life and without health, the person cannot be inserted in educational processes ”. “Right now, the priority must certainly be life and health”, he adds.

“More than 50 countries in the world are already vaccinating. The federal government, within a genocidal policy, has not treated this issue as a priority. The president is a soft body, a boycott, as is the Ministry of Health. It is after vaccination, especially the vaccination of the majority of the population, that we will be better able to prioritize the process of opening schools without risk to children and adolescents and their families ”, Concludes the specialist.

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Copywriting: Clara Assunção – Edition: Helder Lima

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Economy

Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society

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São Paulo – Society undergoes several changes, year after year, be it culturally, in its forms of organization, and even in new working methods. These transformations influence other segments, including Hip-Hop, rap and their MC battles. In view of this, social scientist Felipe Oliveira Campos, known as Felipe Choco, launched the book Rap, Culture and Politics: Battle of the Matrix and the Aesthetics of Entrepreneurial Overcoming, which addresses the digital and marketing influence within this culture.

A member of the Center for Studies and Research of Afro-America (Nepafro), Choco analyzes contemporary society using the Battle of the Matrix held in São Bernardo do Campo as a pillar since 2013, and considered a reference in the duel between MCs. The resistance of the event, the target of police repression and municipal administration, was the starting point for the author.

“When I face the Battle of the Matrix, it poses a number of questions that can be deepened, being able to understand it beyond the context of battles, as public spaces in cities”, he explains. “When the Battle of the Matrix emerged, I was part of the Hip-Hop Forum of São Bernardo do Campo, and mediated conflicts with the Government. Therefore, I realized that the conflicts that the battle created when occupying the public space, raised questions of general interest. So I used the Battle of the Matrix as a way to understand contemporary Brazil, ”added Choco.

In 2018, RBA reported the repression suffered by the battle of ABC Paulista. At the time, the management of the mayor of São Bernardo do Campo, Orlando Morando (PSDB), tried to “boycott” the traditional rap event in the city, by charging a fee for using the Praça da Matrix, in the city center. At various times, rapper Emicida went to the site to support young people.

Social transformations

While society sees new forms of organization, rap also adapts to these changes. The writer compares the professionalization of artists and battles to the industrialization of the city of São Bernardo do Campo and Posse Hausa, a black organization founded in the 1990s, focused on the Hip-Hop movement, whose majority of the members were workers in the ABC industry Paulista.

With the 2017 labor reform, by then President Michel Temer (MDB-SP), Felipe Choco explains that the social dynamics have also changed within the Hip-Hop culture. “Today, the organizers of the Battle of the Matrix are part of the service sector, without stability and without social protection. Therefore, the financial solution, among the organizers, was the professionalization of the event. This applies to the whole culture. ”

The main example used by the author of these social and economic transformations in rap is Emicida’s career. Coming from the Battle of Santa Cruz, disputed south of São Paulo, the rapper emerged using the main method of rhyming duels: the punchlines – in Portuguese, punch lines, used to impress the listener.

After the success, the rapper created his own musical label: Laboratório Fantasma. “Emicida created a horizon to organize its own career, without having to go through the distributors’ screen. In other words, it is the democratization of music production, distribution and consumption ”, said Choco, who recalls that the book’s presentation is signed by the MC.

Aesthetics of entrepreneurial overcoming

Based on the phenomenon achieved by Emicida, the social scientist points to the creation of a new aesthetic within rap: that of entrepreneurial overcoming. According to him, this aspect allows creative freedom and financial autonomy, creating a style of business organization.

“This overcoming does not mean denying the culture’s past, but advancing in the market sense, creating a mark around the artist”, he explained. The author quotes a statement by Mano Brown, a member of Racionais, where the rapper points out that the phonographic market is no longer just the commercialization of music, but also the image and positioning of MCs.

This aesthetic creates a new notion of work and organization, according to the author. “If we make a parallel with the industrial market, in the 1990s, work was in opposition to capital, where the organization of the workforce sought its valorization. Now, in the face of informality and the imposition that ‘each one is an entrepreneur of their own’, artists become their own business capital ”, he reiterates.

However, this entrepreneurial resilience does not only involve rappers and new independent labels, but also affects the battles of MCs, including the Matrix. With the rise of streaming platforms such as YouTube, duels have become more digital, have reached new audiences and created a new market.

“The Battle of the Matrix is ​​a product of that condition that battles have become. Before the pandemic, every Tuesday, she mobilized 1,000 people in the square. Battles play a fundamental role in mutations and reinventions of culture, as was the case with punchline, taking a new breath in how to make and organize rap. These changes that occur in rap did not come out of nowhere, they are the result of social transformations ”, concludes Felipe.

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