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Spain discusses new law against scars of the Franco dictatorship – RBA

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São Paulo – Francisco Franco died almost 45 years ago, in November 1975, but his spectrum is still around Spanish politics. He emerged to power at the end of the Spanish Civil War, in 1939, starting the Franco dictatorship, and commanded Spain until his death. Last week, the government introduced the so-called Draft Democratic Memory Law. For “moral repair”, “memory recovery” and “guarantees of non-repetition” from that historical period.

With 66 articles, the law prohibits, for example, the “exaltation” of Francoism in Spain. Those responsible for an act in honor of the dictator may be fined up to € 150 thousand (approximately R $ 930 thousand, at the current exchange rate). Teaching about this period of Spanish history can also be changed in schools, with “updating” of curricular content, particularly in high school.

Persecution and violence

“The objective of this law is the recognition of those who suffered persecution or violence, for political, ideological, religious conscience or belief, sexual orientation and identity reasons, during the period between the 1936 coup, the Civil War and the Franco dictatorship, until the promulgation of the 1978 Constitution ”, says the Council of Ministers in the presentation. “It is about promoting his moral reparation and recovering his memory, and includes repudiation and condemnation of the July 18, 1936 coup d’état and the subsequent dictatorship.”

This happens almost a year after the exhumation of Franco’s own remains. In October 2019, he left the Valley of the Fallen, whose mausoleum, which he had built, intended to “defy time and oblivion”. Now, there is an intention to turn the place into a memory space about the meaning of the Franco dictatorship in the history of Spain.

Annulment of judgments

The law resumes a debate interrupted in 2007, after the rise of conservative governments in Spain. On December 26 of that year, Law 52 came into force, recognizing the rights of those who suffered persecution and violence during the civil war and the dictatorship. “The new rule, 13 years later, tries to incorporate some of the measures claimed since then by victim associations and UN rapporteurs”, says a newspaper report El País.

One of the demands, now included, is to make all summary judgments made in the Franco era “null and void”. In addition, associations that advocate that period should be considered illegal – such as the Francisco Franco Foundation itself. It is also intended to map mass graves and intensify the process of exhumation of victims, with the creation of a national DNA bank, for identification.

A controversial point is the creation of an organ for the “inspection” of democratic memory and to coordinate the process of justice and reparation. The State must guarantee the right to an investigation of human rights violations. But as far as possible punishments are concerned, there are limits imposed by an amnesty law passed in 1977.

Murdered civilization

One of the most iconic – and painful – memories of the Civil War is the painting Guernica, by Pablo Picasso. The artist made the painting in two months, shortly after the bombing of the city of the Basque Country, destroyed by the Germans, Franco’s allies, in April 1937. The painter, who lived in Paris, spoke of “murder of civilization” and warned that Guernica it would only enter Spain with the return of democracy.

That is what happened. The monumental mural (approximately 3.5 meters by 7.8 meters) arrived in Picasso’s native country on September 10, 1981, three years after the Constitution, six years after Franco’s death and eight years after Franco’s death. painter. He went first to the Prado Museum, in Madrid, and since 1992 he has been in Room 206 of the Reina Sofía Museum, also in the capital. An example of living memory.

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Economy

11 million Bolivians will have free vaccine against covid

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São Paulo – Former Bolivian President Evo Morales commented, this Wednesday (21st), the importance of youth in the electoral process that led Luis Arce, from the Movement to Socialism (MAS), to victory in the presidential election of October 18 . “Young people saw what it is like to live under the right and the dictatorship. And they reflected on how we were with our revolution and how we were under the coup, ”he said. Evo was overthrown by a coup in November 2019 that brought lawyer and TV presenter Jeanine Áñez to the presidency. With 90% of the official count completed. at 3:40 pm on this Wednesday (21st), Luis Arce approaches 55% of the valid votes. “What was at stake on October 18 was to go back to the past with the privatists or continue to the future with the nationalists,” said Evo Morales in an interview with Breno Altman (watch below).

Asked how the country will recover from the economic crisis aggravated by the coronavirus pandemic, he replied that it will be with the presence of the state. The Bolivian guaranteed that Bolivia will normalize relations with China, Cuba, “some European countries” and Russia. “Those who once asked for market, market, market, now say State, State State, in the face of the pandemic.”

Vaccine against covid-19

“We are going to face the pandemic. When we have the vaccine, we will distribute it to all 11 million Bolivians for free. ” According to him, tackling the pandemic and the crisis will be done through joint work between the federal government, governors and mayors.

In Brazil, President Jair Bolsonaro not only boycotts health policies, but goes further. On Wednesday, he forbade the country to buy the Chinese vaccine CoronaVac, which would have 46 million doses through negotiations with the state of São Paulo announced the day before by the Minister of Health, Eduardo Pazuello. “I don’t give up my authority”, justified the Brazilian’s head of state.

South America

About neighbors in South America, Evo Morales highlighted the “profound ideological and programmatic difference” between MAS and the president of Chile, Sebastián Piñera, from Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro, and the former Argentine president Mauricio Macri. But it was diplomatic. “Whether it is left or right, we must work together respecting our differences. South Americans cannot be isolated, ”he said.

Morales acknowledged that he may have been mistaken as president. “I was wrong, but I am a human being,” he said. “Now we have experience in public management, and we are going to take Bolivia forward, united, organized.” He affirmed that the new government will make “a pact of union between the parties of the right, businessmen and workers, a great national agreement, to raise the economy”, adding: “The moment is to consolidate our process of change, democracy does not end on election day ”.

Evo has been in Argentina since December 2019, where he went into exile after the coup in the country. He said that the return to his country still has no forecast. In an interview with BBC Brazil, the president-elect was not positive about the possible participation of the ex-president in the new government. “If Evo Morales wants to help us, he will be very welcome. But that does not mean that Morales will be in the government. It will be my government, ”he said.

Check out Evo Morales interview with Breno Altman

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