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Quino died, who drew the nonconformity. And created Mafalda

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São Paulo – In November 1954, the Argentine weekly magazine Esto Es published a strip of a “laconic line” rookie. Joaquín Salvador Lavado Tejón, the Quino, was 22 years old. This trait became a trademark of the artist, possibly the best-known Spanish-speaking artist in the world. In large part, this is due to the character Mafalda, the rebel nationalist born in 1964 and who had turned 56 yesterday. Quino died on Wednesday (30), aged 88, after suffering a stroke last week.

Born in Mendoza on July 17, 1932, at the age of 13, already decided to be a draftsman, he enrolled at the School of Fine Arts. He tired of painting on plaster, and at 18 he went to Buenos Aires to look for an editor. It took over three years to get it. “On the day I published my first page, I had the happiest moment in my life,” he recalled.

A character is born

Married to Alicia Colombo since 1960, three years later he published his first book, Quino World. At that time, he was introduced to an advertising agency that was looking for someone to launch a line of home appliance products. The campaign did not go forward, but there began to be born the most famous of its characters. “Mafalda, the black hair girl who hates soup and is in contradiction with adults”, as she defined it.

The first strip with Mafalda was first published on September 29, 1964, in the weekly Primera Plana. It didn’t take long for it to become an international phenomenon. It was the little girl who was not satisfied with the world’s ailments, always questioning her parents. And also fanatic for the Beatles, who appeared at the same time.

Mafalda arrived in Italy, for example, in 1969, presented by none other than Umberto Eco. In Brazil, albums published in the 1980s (with 1965 strips from newspapers The world and Cordoba) were translated by Mouzar Benedito and edited by Henfil.

Creator and creature

Quino stopped drawing Mafalda and his gang in June 1973. He wanted to dedicate himself to other projects. Later, it was discovered that the end of the cops was also related to the political situation in Argentina. But she had already taken on a life of her own. He became one of the most iconic characters of all time. Those who go to Buenos Aires, for example, hardly fail to go to the neighborhood of San Telmo, the location of a famous fair and where Mafalda is, sitting on a bench.

In 2018, statues of Mafalda, Manolito and Susanita were inaugurated in Mendoza, the writer’s birthplace. But just as the character has transcended the creator, Quino’s work goes far beyond the creature. Quino is “one of the greatest authors of graphic humor ever,” said cartoonist Laerte a long time ago.

In an interview with the newspaper Page / 12, in 2004, Quino told what he was talking about in his strips: “The relationship between the weak and the powerful”.

Read more:

A 6-year-old rebel reaches 50

reproduction
Classic Quino strip: the maid tidies up everything, including the painting ‘Guernica’

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Economy

more unemployment and more informality

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São Paulo – Government, businessmen and some parliamentarians were in tune with the defense of the bill that, if approved, would lead to the creation of Law 13,467 in 2017. The so-called labor reform, after all, would lead to the creation of millions of jobs. This would happen to the extent that it would end the rigidity of the legislation, which they treated as being “plastered”, facilitating hiring and giving the much-needed “modernization” to the Brazilian labor market.

Because the law completed three years on November 11 “and nobody celebrated, not even timidly”, recalls analyst Marcos Verlaine, from the Inter-Union Department of Parliamentary Advisory (Diap). “Among the expectations generated by the authors, the government of that time, the businessmen, who sponsored, defended and acted strongly in Congress to approve it, the media and reality, remained the harsh reality”, he says, in an article. He defines the measure passed by Congress as a “capital Trojan horse” to implode labor rights.

Collective bargaining?

The insistent defense of the “negotiated over the legislature”, a recurring expression at the time, was not to privilege negotiation, notes the analyst. “It was to remove rights, since the negotiations – both CCT (ccollective labor agreements) and ACT (collective labor agreements) – they never prevented, on the contrary, that the conventions surpass the CLT, nor that the agreements surpass the conventions. ”

The “millions” of jobs did not come, even before the pandemic. The growth in occupation was basically due to informal work. In 2016, the year before the “reform”, the country had 10.1 million unpaid employees in the private sector and 22.4 million self-employed workers. Last year, they were 11.6 million and 24.2 million, respectively (check table). The data are from the National Household Sample Survey (Pnad) Continua, from IBGE.

Modernization or precariousness?

Employment with a wallet fell. And the Gini index at work, which measures inequality, which until 2015 fell, rose again the following year and has not stopped.

The “reform” introduced hiring modalities, such as intermittent work. They were also presented as items of the necessary “modernization”, but union members and researchers identify them as additional signs of precariousness in the market. Although still small, the participation of the intermittent modality has been growing.

This week, the Federal Supreme Court (STF) began to judge direct actions of unconstitutionality against intermittent work. In his vote, the rapporteur, Minister Edson Fachin, considered the item unconstitutional and causing damage to workers’ health. But his colleagues Kassio Nunes Marques and Alexandre Moraes were in favor of the sport. The trial was interrupted by a request for view from Minister Rosa Weber.

If it is impossible to revoke the law in its entirety, Verlaine suggests specific changes, citing intermittent hiring. “It is necessary to negotiate with all political and social actors in order to bring about changes in this scorched earth scenario” he argues.

read more: ‘Labor Reform’: Stories of a False Promise and Changes in ‘Endless Destruction’

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