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MPF asks Justice to postpone examination in Amazonas



São Paulo – The Federal Public Ministry (MPF) in Amazonas yesterday (12) asked the Federal Court to compel the government of Jair Bolsonaro to postpone the National High School Examination (Enem) in the state. Public civil action was motivated by the collapse of the public health system and an increase in the number of cases of covid-19 and deaths. The tests are scheduled for the next 17 and 24 across the country.

At public civil action, The MPF asks that the Enem tests are only applied in the state when the public and private health network has sufficient and necessary structure to account for the situation – which must be attested by a state technical agency. And in the last case, that the test be rescheduled for an alternative date foreseen by the Ministry of Education, in February.

The government of Amazonas has extended the state of public calamity for another six months. Last Wednesday (6th), the Manaus City Hall decreed a state of emergency for 180 days because of the return of an explosion of cases of covid-19. Before, on the 2nd, the State Justice suspended non-essential activities for 15 days, thus attending to a public civil action filed by the state Public Ministry.

Manaus faces another outbreak of the covid-19, with a collapse in the health and funeral system. In the first 12 days of the year, the number of new hospitalizations is already greater than the total for April. January becomes the month with the most hospitalizations for the disease. Yesterday the burials broke a record, registering 166, of which 85 were caused by covid-19.


The Municipal Education Secretariat of Manaus announced today (13) that it will not release municipal schools for the exam. The Secretary of Education, Pauderney Avelino, said that the measure aims to prevent agglomerations in the test sites and the spread of the new coronavirus.

“It is a recklessness, especially at that moment. Today is the 13th. The test will be in four days and we know that the situation in Manaus in relation to the pandemic will not calm down until then. Opening schools for Enem represents agglomeration in front of and inside them. We sent our reasons to the Public Ministry and also suggested that Enem be postponed ”, said the secretary.

Last night the National Council of Secretaries of Education (Consed), which represents state managers, issued a note expressing concern about the examination taking place amid the increase in the explosion of cases. Council representatives met with the direction of the National Institute of Educational Studies and Research Anísio Teixeira (Inep), responsible for Enem. However, according to the G1 Amazonas, the agency made it clear that it will maintain the examination. And that the biosafety protocols established by the health authorities will be followed.

Enem: State Secretaries of Health ask MEC to postpone proof

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Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society




São Paulo – Society undergoes several changes, year after year, be it culturally, in its forms of organization, and even in new working methods. These transformations influence other segments, including Hip-Hop, rap and their MC battles. In view of this, social scientist Felipe Oliveira Campos, known as Felipe Choco, launched the book Rap, Culture and Politics: Battle of the Matrix and the Aesthetics of Entrepreneurial Overcoming, which addresses the digital and marketing influence within this culture.

A member of the Center for Studies and Research of Afro-America (Nepafro), Choco analyzes contemporary society using the Battle of the Matrix held in São Bernardo do Campo as a pillar since 2013, and considered a reference in the duel between MCs. The resistance of the event, the target of police repression and municipal administration, was the starting point for the author.

“When I face the Battle of the Matrix, it poses a number of questions that can be deepened, being able to understand it beyond the context of battles, as public spaces in cities”, he explains. “When the Battle of the Matrix emerged, I was part of the Hip-Hop Forum of São Bernardo do Campo, and mediated conflicts with the Government. Therefore, I realized that the conflicts that the battle created when occupying the public space, raised questions of general interest. So I used the Battle of the Matrix as a way to understand contemporary Brazil, ”added Choco.

In 2018, RBA reported the repression suffered by the battle of ABC Paulista. At the time, the management of the mayor of São Bernardo do Campo, Orlando Morando (PSDB), tried to “boycott” the traditional rap event in the city, by charging a fee for using the Praça da Matrix, in the city center. At various times, rapper Emicida went to the site to support young people.

Social transformations

While society sees new forms of organization, rap also adapts to these changes. The writer compares the professionalization of artists and battles to the industrialization of the city of São Bernardo do Campo and Posse Hausa, a black organization founded in the 1990s, focused on the Hip-Hop movement, whose majority of the members were workers in the ABC industry Paulista.

With the 2017 labor reform, by then President Michel Temer (MDB-SP), Felipe Choco explains that the social dynamics have also changed within the Hip-Hop culture. “Today, the organizers of the Battle of the Matrix are part of the service sector, without stability and without social protection. Therefore, the financial solution, among the organizers, was the professionalization of the event. This applies to the whole culture. ”

The main example used by the author of these social and economic transformations in rap is Emicida’s career. Coming from the Battle of Santa Cruz, disputed south of São Paulo, the rapper emerged using the main method of rhyming duels: the punchlines – in Portuguese, punch lines, used to impress the listener.

After the success, the rapper created his own musical label: Laboratório Fantasma. “Emicida created a horizon to organize its own career, without having to go through the distributors’ screen. In other words, it is the democratization of music production, distribution and consumption ”, said Choco, who recalls that the book’s presentation is signed by the MC.

Aesthetics of entrepreneurial overcoming

Based on the phenomenon achieved by Emicida, the social scientist points to the creation of a new aesthetic within rap: that of entrepreneurial overcoming. According to him, this aspect allows creative freedom and financial autonomy, creating a style of business organization.

“This overcoming does not mean denying the culture’s past, but advancing in the market sense, creating a mark around the artist”, he explained. The author quotes a statement by Mano Brown, a member of Racionais, where the rapper points out that the phonographic market is no longer just the commercialization of music, but also the image and positioning of MCs.

This aesthetic creates a new notion of work and organization, according to the author. “If we make a parallel with the industrial market, in the 1990s, work was in opposition to capital, where the organization of the workforce sought its valorization. Now, in the face of informality and the imposition that ‘each one is an entrepreneur of their own’, artists become their own business capital ”, he reiterates.

However, this entrepreneurial resilience does not only involve rappers and new independent labels, but also affects the battles of MCs, including the Matrix. With the rise of streaming platforms such as YouTube, duels have become more digital, have reached new audiences and created a new market.

“The Battle of the Matrix is ​​a product of that condition that battles have become. Before the pandemic, every Tuesday, she mobilized 1,000 people in the square. Battles play a fundamental role in mutations and reinventions of culture, as was the case with punchline, taking a new breath in how to make and organize rap. These changes that occur in rap did not come out of nowhere, they are the result of social transformations ”, concludes Felipe.

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