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Legal abortion in Argentina is the result of ‘historical construction’ of movements



São Paulo – The processing of the bill that intends to legalize the voluntary and free termination of pregnancy until the 14th week, in Argentina has been impacting the discussion of the topic in other countries in the region, including Brazil. If the Senate passes the legislation, the country will join Uruguay, Cuba, Guyana and French Guiana, where legal abortion is already a reality. For the historian and scientist of religion Bruna David, co-founder of the Fé.ministas collective, the new chapter that Argentina opened last week in the decriminalization debate, with the approval of the Chamber shows that the guidelines related to sexual and reproductive rights must be battled all the time.

In an interview with Maria Teresa Cruz, Current Brazil Newspaper, Bruna, who is also a writer, translator and producer of editorial content, points out that the agenda only arrived at this moment due to the articulation and political courage to debate the legalization of abortion. “It’s not magic, ‘suddenly the president-elect woke up and thought about legalizing abortion’. It is the historical construction of social movements in Argentina ”, he points out.

Last Thursday (10), for the second time in two years, a green sea of ​​women returned to occupy the main cities of the country to demand the voluntary termination of pregnancy. In 2018, another bill for decriminalization was also approved by the House, but was blocked by the Senate. The agenda, however, became a campaign promise by President Alberto Fernández. Once elected, the representative committed himself to the movements and sent the bill to the Legislature. Passed by 131 votes, the bill is now being debated by Senate commissions. According to the newspaper Page 12, the forecast is that by December 29 the legalization of abortion will be voted.

Green wave of history

The procedure follows the progress made by Argentina on gender issues. “When you look at the media, you notice language. There is a whole movement of awareness of people to open up these topics more ”, he explains. According to the historian, this process is also associated with what she calls “political awareness” about the country’s own history.

Bruna recalls that Argentina works to preserve memories, including criticisms of it, debating from the genocide practiced against the black population to the horrors of the military dictatorship (1976-1983). “It is exactly this type of thing that leads to the green wave”, he evaluates.

The weight of Brazilian Christian morality

This historical concern is also what sets it apart from neighboring Brazil. “The Brazilian mentality does not have this political awareness. We still have a slave society, we can say. We arrived in a classroom and learned that Princess Isabel was the savior of the black population, all this bullshit. And we just memorize the story, ”he observes.

“Seeing some countries around us like Uruguay and Argentina, there is not that. They have a search for critical thinking, I think that’s the big difference. And it is sad to say that Paulo Freire is Brazilian. The great guy in education is Brazilian and we have a very big failure in education that is permeated by a moral, which does not necessarily come from school, but from the family ”, he adds.

The historian and scientist of religion warns that the discussion about abortion itself is impregnated by a type of moral discourse, very much based on Christianity, which already in the 1960s, with the Brazilian military regime, advanced as a way of controlling the body of women. women and LGBTQIA + groups, with support also from the traditional media. It is this alliance, according to her, that is responsible for the dissemination of speeches that will call the fight for abortion “murder of babies”. An attack reproduced by figures like extremist Sara Winter and, recently, Congressman Eduardo Bolsonaro (PSL-SP), who used it to criticize Argentina.

Militancy is for the right to choose

“Nobody is here fighting for the woman to do the procedure, the fighting is for the women to have the right to choose or not. Because those who die the most as a result of the criminalization of abortion are black and poor women. What we are looking for is to contain the damage. We are an abortion society. We want to control that nobody dies ”, he points out. “We are fighting for the freedom of women, trans men, everyone who wants to have an abortion, not only when they suffer violence, when they are at risk of life or the fetus is at risk. It is so that people have that choice and are not at risk, that it is a public health issue, not a criminal matter. ”

The historian recalls, however, that despite the weight of conservative discourse in Brazil, “there is resistance” on the part of feminist movements that guide the debate. To El País, the deputy of the National Chamber in Mexico for the Citizen Movement party, Martha Tagle, also pointed out that the decision in Argentina can positively impact the “green tide” in the south. But he warned that, in addition to engaging the movements, support is also needed from the political class.

“The problem is that many people still believe that talking about abortion will mean a high political cost and that we live in a very conservative country. But what Argentina has shown us today is the opposite, talking about women’s rights in the region makes a lot of sense. The feminist movement has demonstrated that there is a generation of young women who are aware of their rights and are not willing to resign ”, stressed the deputy.

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Copywriting: Clara Assunção. Edition: Glauco Faria

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Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society




São Paulo – Society undergoes several changes, year after year, be it culturally, in its forms of organization, and even in new working methods. These transformations influence other segments, including Hip-Hop, rap and their MC battles. In view of this, social scientist Felipe Oliveira Campos, known as Felipe Choco, launched the book Rap, Culture and Politics: Battle of the Matrix and the Aesthetics of Entrepreneurial Overcoming, which addresses the digital and marketing influence within this culture.

A member of the Center for Studies and Research of Afro-America (Nepafro), Choco analyzes contemporary society using the Battle of the Matrix held in São Bernardo do Campo as a pillar since 2013, and considered a reference in the duel between MCs. The resistance of the event, the target of police repression and municipal administration, was the starting point for the author.

“When I face the Battle of the Matrix, it poses a number of questions that can be deepened, being able to understand it beyond the context of battles, as public spaces in cities”, he explains. “When the Battle of the Matrix emerged, I was part of the Hip-Hop Forum of São Bernardo do Campo, and mediated conflicts with the Government. Therefore, I realized that the conflicts that the battle created when occupying the public space, raised questions of general interest. So I used the Battle of the Matrix as a way to understand contemporary Brazil, ”added Choco.

In 2018, RBA reported the repression suffered by the battle of ABC Paulista. At the time, the management of the mayor of São Bernardo do Campo, Orlando Morando (PSDB), tried to “boycott” the traditional rap event in the city, by charging a fee for using the Praça da Matrix, in the city center. At various times, rapper Emicida went to the site to support young people.

Social transformations

While society sees new forms of organization, rap also adapts to these changes. The writer compares the professionalization of artists and battles to the industrialization of the city of São Bernardo do Campo and Posse Hausa, a black organization founded in the 1990s, focused on the Hip-Hop movement, whose majority of the members were workers in the ABC industry Paulista.

With the 2017 labor reform, by then President Michel Temer (MDB-SP), Felipe Choco explains that the social dynamics have also changed within the Hip-Hop culture. “Today, the organizers of the Battle of the Matrix are part of the service sector, without stability and without social protection. Therefore, the financial solution, among the organizers, was the professionalization of the event. This applies to the whole culture. ”

The main example used by the author of these social and economic transformations in rap is Emicida’s career. Coming from the Battle of Santa Cruz, disputed south of São Paulo, the rapper emerged using the main method of rhyming duels: the punchlines – in Portuguese, punch lines, used to impress the listener.

After the success, the rapper created his own musical label: Laboratório Fantasma. “Emicida created a horizon to organize its own career, without having to go through the distributors’ screen. In other words, it is the democratization of music production, distribution and consumption ”, said Choco, who recalls that the book’s presentation is signed by the MC.

Aesthetics of entrepreneurial overcoming

Based on the phenomenon achieved by Emicida, the social scientist points to the creation of a new aesthetic within rap: that of entrepreneurial overcoming. According to him, this aspect allows creative freedom and financial autonomy, creating a style of business organization.

“This overcoming does not mean denying the culture’s past, but advancing in the market sense, creating a mark around the artist”, he explained. The author quotes a statement by Mano Brown, a member of Racionais, where the rapper points out that the phonographic market is no longer just the commercialization of music, but also the image and positioning of MCs.

This aesthetic creates a new notion of work and organization, according to the author. “If we make a parallel with the industrial market, in the 1990s, work was in opposition to capital, where the organization of the workforce sought its valorization. Now, in the face of informality and the imposition that ‘each one is an entrepreneur of their own’, artists become their own business capital ”, he reiterates.

However, this entrepreneurial resilience does not only involve rappers and new independent labels, but also affects the battles of MCs, including the Matrix. With the rise of streaming platforms such as YouTube, duels have become more digital, have reached new audiences and created a new market.

“The Battle of the Matrix is ​​a product of that condition that battles have become. Before the pandemic, every Tuesday, she mobilized 1,000 people in the square. Battles play a fundamental role in mutations and reinventions of culture, as was the case with punchline, taking a new breath in how to make and organize rap. These changes that occur in rap did not come out of nowhere, they are the result of social transformations ”, concludes Felipe.

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