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Inequality marks self-employed workers, reveals study



São Paulo – The pandemic has produced millions of “entrepreneurs” all over Brazil. In view of the lack of formal jobs and the withdrawal of rights imposed since the approval of the labor reform, under Michel Temer, the Brazilian started to have to “manage” to survive. Behind the veneer of entrepreneurship, however, the reality of self-employed workers is harsh. The Reconeuxão Periferias project, of the Perseu Abramo Foundation, and Reafro (Rede Brasil Afroempreendedor) today release (24) unprecedented research that confirms the inequalities in wages and opportunities between genders and races in this segment of the population.

Under the heading In the folds of precariousness – Regional, gender, race and class inequalities in self-employment in Brazil the survey uses data from 2019 from Pnad-C (Continuous National Household Sample Survey). And it reveals the precarious working conditions, remuneration and support in the lives of the vast majority of these workers whose main occupation is self-employment.

There are 24.3 million people
in Brazil in this social group of mostly male composition (63% a
37% women). Up to 48% are ‘own accounts’ with an income of less than R $ 1,000
a month. Only 7% achieve gains in excess of R $ 4,000. For 30%, monthly income
is between R $ 1,001 and R $ 2,000. And 15%, between R $ 2,001 and R $ 4,000.

Persistent inequality

The research also points out
racial and gender discrimination between these “entrepreneurs”. For example, women
hairdressers (black and white) have their monthly income concentrated in the range of up to
R $ 1,000. It is in the white men segment that monthly earnings are concentrated
R $ 4 thousand or more. Blacks are the majority among the self-employed, 54%, ten points
percentages more than whites (44%).

Work on account
itself tends to be the only source of income in 97% of cases. And it tends to be
long-term: 74% have been engaged in the same activity for two years or more. There are 34% of
who work up to 30 hours (20% up to 20 hours). And 35% work more than
that 40 hours a week (11% more than 50 hours and 14% between 44 and 50 hours);
30% work between 30 and 40 hours a week. Most of the self-employment
is made at home, on the street or does not have a specific establishment
to work (64%). Only a third (33%) have stores, offices or

Only 15.7% of these
workers have completed higher education. Most have completed high school
or not (38.8%) and complete elementary education or not (38.1%). Only 2.5% have
less than a year of study or no education.

Policies to change

In analyzing the data extracted from Pnad-C, the institutions came to the conclusion that self-employment in Brazil in 2020 reflects the long cycle of systematic exclusion of opportunities in the formal labor market for the poor, blacks and, in particular, women black. With this information, they intend to identify demands for policies to strengthen the popular economy.

Afro-entrepreneurship in the midst of covid-19: a relationship of economic-historical tension

For example, policies capable of eliminating inequalities in
access to formal education opportunities that harm black men and women

As well as understanding how the reason
neoliberal was incorporated among the “viradores” and what contributed to this
state of affairs. The study also intends to observe cooperative practices and
collaborative, also anti-racist, among these groups. And identify ways
of association and political action adopted by these agents.

“Policies for
development focused on supporting the popular economy (in its connections with
upper and lower circuits of the economy) will be more effective if they
black women and if they are combined with actions to support the organization
collective action to combat racial and gender discrimination, concludes the study.

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Argentine President contaminated by covid-19 and fulfills isolation




São Paulo – The president of Argentina, Alberto Fernández, informed on social media that he tested positive for covid-19, after showing symptoms of the disease. He said he is in isolation and has warned people with whom he has had contact in the past 48 hours. And he also reported that he had 37.3ºC of fever, in addition to feeling a slight headache.

The announcement was made this Saturday (3), the day after Fernández turned 62. “For everyone’s information, I am physically well and, although I wanted to end my birthday without this news, I am also in a good mood,” said the president.

He received the first dose of the vaccine (Sputnik) in January. The second, the following month. “I’m fine, I don’t have any symptoms. Only this fever from yesterday that I reported ”, he declared to the newspaper Clarín. “It is a very complicated virus, and the demonstration is that I got infected, even though I was vaccinated with both doses and with extreme care,” he added.

Former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who received the second dose of the vaccine today, sent a message of support to “Daqui do Brasil I send good energy, hoping for its prompt recovery. May soon overcome this disease to continue caring for the Argentine people. Hugs, mate! ”He wrote.

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