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Economy

House approves Fundeb with exclusive resources for public school

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São Paulo – The Chamber approved today (17) the public Fundeb for the public school. By 470 to 15 votes, an abstention, the Senate’s report to Bill 43/2020 was approved. After receiving harsh criticism for his stance in the vote on the 10th, which disfigured the original text, the rapporteur, Felipe Rigoni (PSB-ES), presented a favorable opinion to the substitute senators, who on Tuesday (15), removed highlights that allowed transfers of around 10% of Fund resources to private and denominational schools, maintained by churches. Result of intense pressure from teachers, students, education specialists, sector entities and opposition deputies.

According to the approved text, the resources of the Fund for the Maintenance and Development of Basic Education and the Valorization of Education Professionals are exclusive for the financing of education maintained by the public network. The PL that made Fundeb permanent takes effect on the 1st of the month.

Except for Novo, all other parties instructed their deputies to vote for Fundeb exclusively for public schools. It was the Novo, by the way, that presented prominence to bring back the device that allows public resources to the private sector and extended the voting. But the proposal was defeated: 266 voted against the highlight and 163 in favor.

Deputy Joice Hasselmann (PSL-SP) criticized the withdrawal of private and confessional schools from the allocation of resources. And he said that the Senate succumbed to pressure from the unions and the ideological narrative. The congresswoman, who received a tiny vote as a candidate for mayor of São Paulo, promised to present a bill that would restore the inclusion of the private network in funding by Fundeb.

In addition to members of the Novo, voted against public education Kim Kataguiri (DEM-SP), Eduardo Bolsonaro (PSL-SP), Bia Kicis (PSL-DF), Luiz Philippe de Orleans Bragança (PSL-SP), Captain Derrite (PP -SP) and Pedro Lupion (DEM-PR).

In this debate, the position of parliamentarians who recognize the importance of these philanthropic and confessional entities, who can even partner with the government, won. But not financed with resources from the Fund created to finance the reduction of educational inequalities in different regions.

The approved PL is authored by Professor Dorinha Seabra Rezende (DEM-TO), rapporteur for PEC 15/2015 that instituted the permanent Fundeb. The report, praised by parliamentarians from all parties, is the result of a broad discussion with the education sector.

Maneuvers

Jair Bolsonaro’s government, which was never in favor of the approval of the permanent Fundeb, tried to maneuver to avoid the vote. He articulated for the vote on PLN 29/20, of his authorship, which authorized supplementary resources of the order of R $ 48 million for various ministries. But the amount was increased to R $ 3.3 billion during the process.

“It is unfortunate that the government wants to transform the vote on the Fundeb regulations into a test of strength for the election of the mayor. Those who associate with Bolsonaro are associating against public education, our victory today represents a lot! ”, Evaluated the president of the National Students Union (UNE), Iago Montalvão.

The inclusion of institutions from the private network would remove R $ 6.4 billion from state and municipal networks in the Southeast, and up to R $ 4 billion for schools in the Northeast. Those in the South would lose R $ 2.5 billion, and those in the North and Center-West would lose R $ 1.8 billion and R $ 1.3 billion, respectively.

Fundeb finances public basic education. It consists of 20% of revenue from eight state and municipal taxes and amounts transferred from federal taxes. With the new Fundeb, by 2026 the federal government should increase the complementation for this fund each year, starting with 12% of the amount until reaching 23%.

Check out how the voting guidance by the parties was

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Economy

Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society

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São Paulo – Society undergoes several changes, year after year, be it culturally, in its forms of organization, and even in new working methods. These transformations influence other segments, including Hip-Hop, rap and their MC battles. In view of this, social scientist Felipe Oliveira Campos, known as Felipe Choco, launched the book Rap, Culture and Politics: Battle of the Matrix and the Aesthetics of Entrepreneurial Overcoming, which addresses the digital and marketing influence within this culture.

A member of the Center for Studies and Research of Afro-America (Nepafro), Choco analyzes contemporary society using the Battle of the Matrix held in São Bernardo do Campo as a pillar since 2013, and considered a reference in the duel between MCs. The resistance of the event, the target of police repression and municipal administration, was the starting point for the author.

“When I face the Battle of the Matrix, it poses a number of questions that can be deepened, being able to understand it beyond the context of battles, as public spaces in cities”, he explains. “When the Battle of the Matrix emerged, I was part of the Hip-Hop Forum of São Bernardo do Campo, and mediated conflicts with the Government. Therefore, I realized that the conflicts that the battle created when occupying the public space, raised questions of general interest. So I used the Battle of the Matrix as a way to understand contemporary Brazil, ”added Choco.

In 2018, RBA reported the repression suffered by the battle of ABC Paulista. At the time, the management of the mayor of São Bernardo do Campo, Orlando Morando (PSDB), tried to “boycott” the traditional rap event in the city, by charging a fee for using the Praça da Matrix, in the city center. At various times, rapper Emicida went to the site to support young people.

Social transformations

While society sees new forms of organization, rap also adapts to these changes. The writer compares the professionalization of artists and battles to the industrialization of the city of São Bernardo do Campo and Posse Hausa, a black organization founded in the 1990s, focused on the Hip-Hop movement, whose majority of the members were workers in the ABC industry Paulista.

With the 2017 labor reform, by then President Michel Temer (MDB-SP), Felipe Choco explains that the social dynamics have also changed within the Hip-Hop culture. “Today, the organizers of the Battle of the Matrix are part of the service sector, without stability and without social protection. Therefore, the financial solution, among the organizers, was the professionalization of the event. This applies to the whole culture. ”

The main example used by the author of these social and economic transformations in rap is Emicida’s career. Coming from the Battle of Santa Cruz, disputed south of São Paulo, the rapper emerged using the main method of rhyming duels: the punchlines – in Portuguese, punch lines, used to impress the listener.

After the success, the rapper created his own musical label: Laboratório Fantasma. “Emicida created a horizon to organize its own career, without having to go through the distributors’ screen. In other words, it is the democratization of music production, distribution and consumption ”, said Choco, who recalls that the book’s presentation is signed by the MC.

Aesthetics of entrepreneurial overcoming

Based on the phenomenon achieved by Emicida, the social scientist points to the creation of a new aesthetic within rap: that of entrepreneurial overcoming. According to him, this aspect allows creative freedom and financial autonomy, creating a style of business organization.

“This overcoming does not mean denying the culture’s past, but advancing in the market sense, creating a mark around the artist”, he explained. The author quotes a statement by Mano Brown, a member of Racionais, where the rapper points out that the phonographic market is no longer just the commercialization of music, but also the image and positioning of MCs.

This aesthetic creates a new notion of work and organization, according to the author. “If we make a parallel with the industrial market, in the 1990s, work was in opposition to capital, where the organization of the workforce sought its valorization. Now, in the face of informality and the imposition that ‘each one is an entrepreneur of their own’, artists become their own business capital ”, he reiterates.

However, this entrepreneurial resilience does not only involve rappers and new independent labels, but also affects the battles of MCs, including the Matrix. With the rise of streaming platforms such as YouTube, duels have become more digital, have reached new audiences and created a new market.

“The Battle of the Matrix is ​​a product of that condition that battles have become. Before the pandemic, every Tuesday, she mobilized 1,000 people in the square. Battles play a fundamental role in mutations and reinventions of culture, as was the case with punchline, taking a new breath in how to make and organize rap. These changes that occur in rap did not come out of nowhere, they are the result of social transformations ”, concludes Felipe.

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