São Paulo – The São Paulo governor, João Doria (PSDB), and the Secretary of State for Education, Rossieli Soares, announced today (17) that the return to school in São Paulo will take place on February 1, 2021, even if the state is in the red phase of quarantine due to the pandemic of the new coronavirus. According to the new school operating plan, in regions that are in the red or orange phases – with the greatest restriction on circulation – the units will be able to receive 35% of students from all phases of basic education – daycare, children, elementary and high school . In the yellow phase, the limit becomes 70%. And in the green phase, 100%.
Soares affirmed, in a press conference, that it is not possible to wait for vaccination to return to school in São Paulo, since children are not considered at risk and there is no forecast of immunization for them in 2021. Vaccines in the final stage of testing did not have the safety established for application in this age group. “The school can no longer close. In this pandemic moment, families need to understand how much more fundamental and important it is to have their children attend school. To continue learning and be welcomed in various aspects. Mainly, emotionally, ”he said.
The rule will be different for back to school at universities in São Paulo, which they will not be able to open if their regions are in red or orange phases. If they are in the yellow phase they can receive 35% of the students and in the green phase, 70%. Only in an eventual blue phase would it be possible to have 100% of the students.
The new organization of back to school in São Paulo changes the whole concept elaborated before. In the previous plan, schools could only reopen in the yellow phase, with 35% of students. In the green phase, they could receive up to 70%. The São Paulo government has been conducting extracurricular activities in state schools since September 8.
According to Soares, there were few recorded cases of covid-19, but all of them originated outside of school. “There was no case of transmission in the school environment,” he said. He also guaranteed that teachers will be a priority in the São Paulo government’s vaccination plan.
Risk goes beyond children
The infectious disease doctor Gerson Salvador confirms that the studies point to a lower risk and less transmission of the virus by children and adolescents, but considers that keeping schools open even in times of high transmission is risky and demands a well-structured social pact. “It is necessary to note that the society as a whole will move with the return to school in São Paulo. More people on the street, more people on public transport, more contacts between people. In addition to children, parents, caregivers, teachers and other professionals will also be exposed ”, he warned.
It would be the case of ensuring the closure of other sectors in the event of a worsening pandemic, such as bars, shopping malls and restaurants – which are still open today, despite the worsening in the pandemic. And monitor compliance with safety protocols, such as wearing masks and avoiding crowds, for example.
Back to school in São Paulo involves 13.3 million people, including students, teachers and other workers, corresponding to 32% of the state’s population. Of these, 2.3 million are in child education, 7.6 million in primary and secondary education, 2 million in higher education, 1 million in complementary education and 428 thousand in vocational education.
A study by the Osvaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), in July, pointed out that going back to school in São Paulo would put at risk about 2.1 million adults and the elderly who belong to groups at risk for covid-19 and live in homes with school-age children and adolescents.
Another problem is the guarantee of access to hygiene materials for students. An inspection report by the Court of Auditors of the Municipality (TCM) reveals that, in 2019, almost 26% of municipal elementary and secondary schools in the capital of São Paulo had no toilet paper in the students’ bathrooms. Only 25% had liquid soap and 30% had paper towels. What guarantees that you will now have alcohol gel, for example?
In Manaus (AM), just 15 days after returning to school, 342 public high school teachers tested positive for the new coronavirus. The data resulted from tests applied to 1,064 education professionals in the city, which was equivalent to 32.2% of contamination. The situation led Governor Wilson Lima (PSC) to decree indefinitely postponing the resumption of basic education activities. The case occurred in August of that year.
Back to school studies
The return to school in São Paulo announced today,
supported by recently released studies showing that, in addition to being less
affected by the new coronavirus, children also transmit the disease less. Second
the World Health Organization (WHO), of the total diagnosed cases, only
3.7% occurred in children and adolescents under 14 years of age. Of these, 0.6%
developed some complication, such as Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome,
which, although severe, can be treated and overcome.
An article published in the journal Nature suggests that the fact that children are less susceptible to covid-19 is due to their immune system. “Children are very well adapted to respond and very well equipped to respond to new viruses,” explained Donna Farber, an immunologist at Columbia University in New York, in the publication.
In the case of children, the vast majority are asymptomatic. Data from the Serological Survey of the city of São Paulo indicate about 70% of asymptomatic individuals in this age group in the municipal school system. Other studies point to up to 90%. And when they show symptoms, in general, they are mild.
Another study cited in Nature reports that three children under the age of ten in the same family developed antibodies to the new coronavirus. Two of them had mild symptoms. And yet none of them tested positive on the RT-PCR test, in 11 attempts performed over 28 days. The children’s parents tested positive.
“The children’s immune system sees the virus and simply builds up a really quick and effective immune response that shuts it off, before it has a chance to replicate itself to the point of giving a positive test,” said Melanie Neeland, an immunologist who studied the family at the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Melbourne, Australia.
A third survey, called Kids Corona, conducted by Hospital Sant Joan de Déu in Barcelona, Spain, with 724 children with at least one parent with covid-19 showed that about 99% of them had no symptoms or were very mild cases . In addition, 33.8% of adults still had a viral load in the nasopharynx one month later, which occurred with only 11.9% of children
Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society
São Paulo – Society undergoes several changes, year after year, be it culturally, in its forms of organization, and even in new working methods. These transformations influence other segments, including Hip-Hop, rap and their MC battles. In view of this, social scientist Felipe Oliveira Campos, known as Felipe Choco, launched the book Rap, Culture and Politics: Battle of the Matrix and the Aesthetics of Entrepreneurial Overcoming, which addresses the digital and marketing influence within this culture.
A member of the Center for Studies and Research of Afro-America (Nepafro), Choco analyzes contemporary society using the Battle of the Matrix held in São Bernardo do Campo as a pillar since 2013, and considered a reference in the duel between MCs. The resistance of the event, the target of police repression and municipal administration, was the starting point for the author.
“When I face the Battle of the Matrix, it poses a number of questions that can be deepened, being able to understand it beyond the context of battles, as public spaces in cities”, he explains. “When the Battle of the Matrix emerged, I was part of the Hip-Hop Forum of São Bernardo do Campo, and mediated conflicts with the Government. Therefore, I realized that the conflicts that the battle created when occupying the public space, raised questions of general interest. So I used the Battle of the Matrix as a way to understand contemporary Brazil, ”added Choco.
In 2018, RBA reported the repression suffered by the battle of ABC Paulista. At the time, the management of the mayor of São Bernardo do Campo, Orlando Morando (PSDB), tried to “boycott” the traditional rap event in the city, by charging a fee for using the Praça da Matrix, in the city center. At various times, rapper Emicida went to the site to support young people.
While society sees new forms of organization, rap also adapts to these changes. The writer compares the professionalization of artists and battles to the industrialization of the city of São Bernardo do Campo and Posse Hausa, a black organization founded in the 1990s, focused on the Hip-Hop movement, whose majority of the members were workers in the ABC industry Paulista.
With the 2017 labor reform, by then President Michel Temer (MDB-SP), Felipe Choco explains that the social dynamics have also changed within the Hip-Hop culture. “Today, the organizers of the Battle of the Matrix are part of the service sector, without stability and without social protection. Therefore, the financial solution, among the organizers, was the professionalization of the event. This applies to the whole culture. ”
The main example used by the author of these social and economic transformations in rap is Emicida’s career. Coming from the Battle of Santa Cruz, disputed south of São Paulo, the rapper emerged using the main method of rhyming duels: the punchlines – in Portuguese, punch lines, used to impress the listener.
After the success, the rapper created his own musical label: Laboratório Fantasma. “Emicida created a horizon to organize its own career, without having to go through the distributors’ screen. In other words, it is the democratization of music production, distribution and consumption ”, said Choco, who recalls that the book’s presentation is signed by the MC.
Aesthetics of entrepreneurial overcoming
Based on the phenomenon achieved by Emicida, the social scientist points to the creation of a new aesthetic within rap: that of entrepreneurial overcoming. According to him, this aspect allows creative freedom and financial autonomy, creating a style of business organization.
“This overcoming does not mean denying the culture’s past, but advancing in the market sense, creating a mark around the artist”, he explained. The author quotes a statement by Mano Brown, a member of Racionais, where the rapper points out that the phonographic market is no longer just the commercialization of music, but also the image and positioning of MCs.
This aesthetic creates a new notion of work and organization, according to the author. “If we make a parallel with the industrial market, in the 1990s, work was in opposition to capital, where the organization of the workforce sought its valorization. Now, in the face of informality and the imposition that ‘each one is an entrepreneur of their own’, artists become their own business capital ”, he reiterates.
However, this entrepreneurial resilience does not only involve rappers and new independent labels, but also affects the battles of MCs, including the Matrix. With the rise of streaming platforms such as YouTube, duels have become more digital, have reached new audiences and created a new market.
“The Battle of the Matrix is a product of that condition that battles have become. Before the pandemic, every Tuesday, she mobilized 1,000 people in the square. Battles play a fundamental role in mutations and reinventions of culture, as was the case with punchline, taking a new breath in how to make and organize rap. These changes that occur in rap did not come out of nowhere, they are the result of social transformations ”, concludes Felipe.
Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society
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