São Paulo – The current and former mayor’s government
Governor João Doria and his deputy, successor and candidate for reelection, Bruno
Covas, both from the PSDB, took about R $ 3.4 billion from municipal education
2017 and 2019. This is because the Tucan management reduced the percentage of
taxes for the public school system, which had been growing in the management of
Fernando Haddad (PT). In 2016, the city applied 28.57% of the revenue from
education taxes. In 2017, the first year of the toucan government,
26.59%. The value fell further in 2018: 25.07%. And it increased a little in 2019, without
arrive in the percentage of three years before: 25.44%.
Although the action is not illegal, since the minimum application required by the Federal Constitution is 25% of the tax revenue, in practice the action by Doria and Covas reduced the amount invested in education. With the reduction of funds, many schools had their maintenance contracts reduced and started the 2020 school year without cleaning water tanks, janitorial services, lawn mowing in playgrounds, pest control and other actions.
The reduction in funds impacted other programs, such as Leve Leite, which lost 83% of the funds it had in 2016, failing to serve almost 700 thousand children. That year, the program was run for R $ 246 million, to assist 916 thousand children from zero to 14 years old. When Doria and Covas took over, children from 7 to 14 years old were excluded from the program and the execution of the budget fell to R $ 50.8 million. In the following years the values continued to fall: R $ 45.9 million, in 2018, R $ 41.8 million, in 2019. In this year, until November, R $ 41.4 million were invested.
The freezing of approximately 13.5% of the 2017 municipal education budget, by Doria and Covas, affected the food of children enrolled in the municipal day care centers of the partner network. According to reports by representatives of the contracted entities, the government of Doria and Covas started to deliver a quantity of food lower than the needs of schools. The organizations started to purchase food on their own to guarantee the children’s complete meal. Rice, beef, cooking oil, fruits and vegetables were the items that had the most reduction in supply by the city.
The situation became serious, as reported by Darcy Diago Finzetto, director of the Social Center Nossa Senhora do Bom Parto, during the assembly of the Early Childhood Education Forum with Associated Entities of the Municipality of São Paulo (FEI), on May 10, 2017, in the City Council from Sao Paulo. “The lunch is shameful. Nurseries with 150 children, from my organization, received three items to spend the month. Three items for a week. Vegetables and greens, then, don’t even talk about it ”, he said.
The main school feeding program of the Doria and Covas government was human food. The idea was to receive donations of leftover food that would be discarded by industry or commerce and process them to produce a “nutritional granulate” that would be distributed to the low-income population and to students. Donors would receive economic benefits and tax exemptions. The proposal was largely rejected and the toucans gave up on the idea.
While proposing to improve the nutrition of poor children with ultra-processed foods, Doria and Covas failed to meet the target for the purchase of organic school meals, investing only 0.62% of the education budget for this purpose in 2017. In the following years, only a small portion of the school lunch foods originated from family farming and free from pesticides.
Kindergarten and preschool queue
Covas and Doria’s main promise in education was to clear the daycare line by March 2018. Close to the deadline and with no prospect of achieving the goal, the toucans government started enrolling children in daycare centers that were still under construction. Family members of the children were called in to register, but when they arrived at the place where the nursery should have been, they found construction sites, with no conclusion expected.
THE RBA showed, in early 2018, that the situation occurred at least in two units. The private day care center Rio Claro, in Chácara Enseada, in the Jardim Ângela region, had been shut down for over a year, according to residents. However, there were enrollments of two hundred babies there, according to the management system of the Municipal Department of Education. On the west side, the Creche Conveniada Maria de Lourdes was still under construction and with no conclusion expected, but it also had 206 children enrolled.
Covas has repeated that his government was responsible for zeroing the pre-school queue, which would be a hallmark of municipal education. In fact, the toucan appropriates a feat from Haddad’s management, which ended in 2016, which was only completed in 2017. The PT administration created almost 100 thousand places in early childhood education between January 2013 and August 2016, according to Ministry documents State Audience. And it left only 1,269 children in the waiting line, assumed by the then elected Doria and Covas.
With that, the demand was zeroed without the toucans
needed to open any new schools. Instead, they eliminated the period
dozens of Municipal Schools of Early Childhood Education (Emei) to
guarantee the vacancies that were missing. The measure hurt hundreds of families, who
protested the change, made without any dialogue and back from recess
July, taking everyone by surprise.
Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society
São Paulo – Society undergoes several changes, year after year, be it culturally, in its forms of organization, and even in new working methods. These transformations influence other segments, including Hip-Hop, rap and their MC battles. In view of this, social scientist Felipe Oliveira Campos, known as Felipe Choco, launched the book Rap, Culture and Politics: Battle of the Matrix and the Aesthetics of Entrepreneurial Overcoming, which addresses the digital and marketing influence within this culture.
A member of the Center for Studies and Research of Afro-America (Nepafro), Choco analyzes contemporary society using the Battle of the Matrix held in São Bernardo do Campo as a pillar since 2013, and considered a reference in the duel between MCs. The resistance of the event, the target of police repression and municipal administration, was the starting point for the author.
“When I face the Battle of the Matrix, it poses a number of questions that can be deepened, being able to understand it beyond the context of battles, as public spaces in cities”, he explains. “When the Battle of the Matrix emerged, I was part of the Hip-Hop Forum of São Bernardo do Campo, and mediated conflicts with the Government. Therefore, I realized that the conflicts that the battle created when occupying the public space, raised questions of general interest. So I used the Battle of the Matrix as a way to understand contemporary Brazil, ”added Choco.
In 2018, RBA reported the repression suffered by the battle of ABC Paulista. At the time, the management of the mayor of São Bernardo do Campo, Orlando Morando (PSDB), tried to “boycott” the traditional rap event in the city, by charging a fee for using the Praça da Matrix, in the city center. At various times, rapper Emicida went to the site to support young people.
While society sees new forms of organization, rap also adapts to these changes. The writer compares the professionalization of artists and battles to the industrialization of the city of São Bernardo do Campo and Posse Hausa, a black organization founded in the 1990s, focused on the Hip-Hop movement, whose majority of the members were workers in the ABC industry Paulista.
With the 2017 labor reform, by then President Michel Temer (MDB-SP), Felipe Choco explains that the social dynamics have also changed within the Hip-Hop culture. “Today, the organizers of the Battle of the Matrix are part of the service sector, without stability and without social protection. Therefore, the financial solution, among the organizers, was the professionalization of the event. This applies to the whole culture. ”
The main example used by the author of these social and economic transformations in rap is Emicida’s career. Coming from the Battle of Santa Cruz, disputed south of São Paulo, the rapper emerged using the main method of rhyming duels: the punchlines – in Portuguese, punch lines, used to impress the listener.
After the success, the rapper created his own musical label: Laboratório Fantasma. “Emicida created a horizon to organize its own career, without having to go through the distributors’ screen. In other words, it is the democratization of music production, distribution and consumption ”, said Choco, who recalls that the book’s presentation is signed by the MC.
Aesthetics of entrepreneurial overcoming
Based on the phenomenon achieved by Emicida, the social scientist points to the creation of a new aesthetic within rap: that of entrepreneurial overcoming. According to him, this aspect allows creative freedom and financial autonomy, creating a style of business organization.
“This overcoming does not mean denying the culture’s past, but advancing in the market sense, creating a mark around the artist”, he explained. The author quotes a statement by Mano Brown, a member of Racionais, where the rapper points out that the phonographic market is no longer just the commercialization of music, but also the image and positioning of MCs.
This aesthetic creates a new notion of work and organization, according to the author. “If we make a parallel with the industrial market, in the 1990s, work was in opposition to capital, where the organization of the workforce sought its valorization. Now, in the face of informality and the imposition that ‘each one is an entrepreneur of their own’, artists become their own business capital ”, he reiterates.
However, this entrepreneurial resilience does not only involve rappers and new independent labels, but also affects the battles of MCs, including the Matrix. With the rise of streaming platforms such as YouTube, duels have become more digital, have reached new audiences and created a new market.
“The Battle of the Matrix is a product of that condition that battles have become. Before the pandemic, every Tuesday, she mobilized 1,000 people in the square. Battles play a fundamental role in mutations and reinventions of culture, as was the case with punchline, taking a new breath in how to make and organize rap. These changes that occur in rap did not come out of nowhere, they are the result of social transformations ”, concludes Felipe.
Book addresses transformations in rap through changes in society
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